Yes. There are several different reasons involving sexual activity that a women can get a yeast infection: http://candidaquestions.probacto.com/74/can-i-get-a-yeast-infection-from-sexual-activity, but one of the biggest reasons that women can get yeast infections are due to allergies.
Condoms by themself won't cause a yeast infection, see here, but when you have allergies, you are opening up a completely different scenario. If you're allergic to something, and you just rub it on your skin vigorously, you may expect negative side effects. Now imagine rubbing that same substance on your genitals, you can expect to regret it the very next day. Your vaginal area will be inflamed, your body will create histimanes to fight it, and it's overall defenses will be greatly reduced. Typical side effects to expect are burning, blisters, rash, and itching. The levels vary greatly depending on your exposure, and how allergic you are. There are cases of latex allergies causing fatal reactions as well. If your partner experiences Anaphylaxis, please call 911 immediately.
The pH level in your vagina will also be affected, and can become an environment for yeast to thrive.
Besides using latex, or practicing abstinence, if you wish to be safe, there are plenty of non-latex solutions, although they tend to be more expensive are certainly worth the price you pay for peace of mind. Careful with lambskin condoms, they do not protect against std's.
Condoms are not the only culprit. There are other items that can also work against you, lubricants are a big cause. There are many people who still use petroleum jelly, but it is not recommended, as it's an oil based lubricant and will tear up condoms. There are water based and silicone based, try to get something that is fragrance free. Look for the ones with the least amount of chemicals, you do not need lubricants that warm up on skin contact, or other flavors.